Enum kvarn::prelude::Cow

1.0.0 · source ·
pub enum Cow<'a, B>where
    B: 'a + ToOwned + ?Sized,
{ Borrowed(&'a B), Owned(<B as ToOwned>::Owned), }
Expand description

A clone-on-write smart pointer.

The type Cow is a smart pointer providing clone-on-write functionality: it can enclose and provide immutable access to borrowed data, and clone the data lazily when mutation or ownership is required. The type is designed to work with general borrowed data via the Borrow trait.

Cow implements Deref, which means that you can call non-mutating methods directly on the data it encloses. If mutation is desired, to_mut will obtain a mutable reference to an owned value, cloning if necessary.

If you need reference-counting pointers, note that Rc::make_mut and Arc::make_mut can provide clone-on-write functionality as well.

Examples

use std::borrow::Cow;

fn abs_all(input: &mut Cow<[i32]>) {
    for i in 0..input.len() {
        let v = input[i];
        if v < 0 {
            // Clones into a vector if not already owned.
            input.to_mut()[i] = -v;
        }
    }
}

// No clone occurs because `input` doesn't need to be mutated.
let slice = [0, 1, 2];
let mut input = Cow::from(&slice[..]);
abs_all(&mut input);

// Clone occurs because `input` needs to be mutated.
let slice = [-1, 0, 1];
let mut input = Cow::from(&slice[..]);
abs_all(&mut input);

// No clone occurs because `input` is already owned.
let mut input = Cow::from(vec![-1, 0, 1]);
abs_all(&mut input);

Another example showing how to keep Cow in a struct:

use std::borrow::Cow;

struct Items<'a, X: 'a> where [X]: ToOwned<Owned = Vec<X>> {
    values: Cow<'a, [X]>,
}

impl<'a, X: Clone + 'a> Items<'a, X> where [X]: ToOwned<Owned = Vec<X>> {
    fn new(v: Cow<'a, [X]>) -> Self {
        Items { values: v }
    }
}

// Creates a container from borrowed values of a slice
let readonly = [1, 2];
let borrowed = Items::new((&readonly[..]).into());
match borrowed {
    Items { values: Cow::Borrowed(b) } => println!("borrowed {b:?}"),
    _ => panic!("expect borrowed value"),
}

let mut clone_on_write = borrowed;
// Mutates the data from slice into owned vec and pushes a new value on top
clone_on_write.values.to_mut().push(3);
println!("clone_on_write = {:?}", clone_on_write.values);

// The data was mutated. Let's check it out.
match clone_on_write {
    Items { values: Cow::Owned(_) } => println!("clone_on_write contains owned data"),
    _ => panic!("expect owned data"),
}

Variants§

§

Borrowed(&'a B)

Borrowed data.

§

Owned(<B as ToOwned>::Owned)

Owned data.

Implementations§

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (cow_is_borrowed)

Returns true if the data is borrowed, i.e. if to_mut would require additional work.

Examples
#![feature(cow_is_borrowed)]
use std::borrow::Cow;

let cow = Cow::Borrowed("moo");
assert!(cow.is_borrowed());

let bull: Cow<'_, str> = Cow::Owned("...moo?".to_string());
assert!(!bull.is_borrowed());
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (cow_is_borrowed)

Returns true if the data is owned, i.e. if to_mut would be a no-op.

Examples
#![feature(cow_is_borrowed)]
use std::borrow::Cow;

let cow: Cow<'_, str> = Cow::Owned("moo".to_string());
assert!(cow.is_owned());

let bull = Cow::Borrowed("...moo?");
assert!(!bull.is_owned());

Acquires a mutable reference to the owned form of the data.

Clones the data if it is not already owned.

Examples
use std::borrow::Cow;

let mut cow = Cow::Borrowed("foo");
cow.to_mut().make_ascii_uppercase();

assert_eq!(
  cow,
  Cow::Owned(String::from("FOO")) as Cow<str>
);

Extracts the owned data.

Clones the data if it is not already owned.

Examples

Calling into_owned on a Cow::Borrowed returns a clone of the borrowed data:

use std::borrow::Cow;

let s = "Hello world!";
let cow = Cow::Borrowed(s);

assert_eq!(
  cow.into_owned(),
  String::from(s)
);

Calling into_owned on a Cow::Owned returns the owned data. The data is moved out of the Cow without being cloned.

use std::borrow::Cow;

let s = "Hello world!";
let cow: Cow<str> = Cow::Owned(String::from(s));

assert_eq!(
  cow.into_owned(),
  String::from(s)
);

Trait Implementations§

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
Performs the += operation. Read more
Performs the += operation. Read more
Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an owned Cow<’a, B> with the default value for the contained owned value.

The resulting type after dereferencing.
Dereferences the value.
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates a Borrowed variant of Cow from a slice.

This conversion does not allocate or clone the data.

Converts a CStr into a borrowed Cow without copying or allocating.

Converts a &CString into a borrowed Cow without copying or allocating.

Converts the string reference into a Cow::Borrowed.

Converts the string reference into a Cow::Borrowed.

Creates a clone-on-write pointer from a reference to Path.

This conversion does not clone or allocate.

Creates a clone-on-write pointer from a reference to PathBuf.

This conversion does not clone or allocate.

Converts a String reference into a Borrowed variant. No heap allocation is performed, and the string is not copied.

Example
let s = "eggplant".to_string();
assert_eq!(Cow::from(&s), Cow::Borrowed("eggplant"));

Creates a Borrowed variant of Cow from a reference to Vec.

This conversion does not allocate or clone the data.

Converts a string slice into a Borrowed variant. No heap allocation is performed, and the string is not copied.

Example
assert_eq!(Cow::from("eggplant"), Cow::Borrowed("eggplant"));

Converts a CString into an owned Cow without copying or allocating.

Create an atomically reference-counted pointer from a clone-on-write pointer by copying its content.

Example
let cow: Cow<str> = Cow::Borrowed("eggplant");
let shared: Arc<str> = Arc::from(cow);
assert_eq!("eggplant", &shared[..]);

Converts a clone-on-write pointer to an owned path.

Converting from a Cow::Owned does not clone or allocate.

Moves the string into a Cow::Owned.

Creates a clone-on-write pointer from an owned instance of PathBuf.

This conversion does not clone or allocate.

Converts to this type from the input type.
Converts to this type from the input type.

Converts a String into an Owned variant. No heap allocation is performed, and the string is not copied.

Example
let s = "eggplant".to_string();
let s2 = "eggplant".to_string();
assert_eq!(Cow::from(s), Cow::<'static, str>::Owned(s2));

Creates an Owned variant of Cow from an owned instance of Vec.

This conversion does not allocate or clone the data.

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more
Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
Converts the given value to a String. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Get a CleanDebug for Self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.

Returns the argument unchanged.

Instruments this type with the provided Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

Should always be Self
The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
Converts the given value to a String. Read more
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more
Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more