Struct kvarn::prelude::Instant

1.8.0 · source ·
pub struct Instant(/* private fields */);
Expand description

A measurement of a monotonically nondecreasing clock. Opaque and useful only with Duration.

Instants are always guaranteed, barring platform bugs, to be no less than any previously measured instant when created, and are often useful for tasks such as measuring benchmarks or timing how long an operation takes.

Note, however, that instants are not guaranteed to be steady. In other words, each tick of the underlying clock might not be the same length (e.g. some seconds may be longer than others). An instant may jump forwards or experience time dilation (slow down or speed up), but it will never go backwards. As part of this non-guarantee it is also not specified whether system suspends count as elapsed time or not. The behavior varies across platforms and Rust versions.

Instants are opaque types that can only be compared to one another. There is no method to get “the number of seconds” from an instant. Instead, it only allows measuring the duration between two instants (or comparing two instants).

The size of an Instant struct may vary depending on the target operating system.

Example:

use std::time::{Duration, Instant};
use std::thread::sleep;

fn main() {
   let now = Instant::now();

   // we sleep for 2 seconds
   sleep(Duration::new(2, 0));
   // it prints '2'
   println!("{}", now.elapsed().as_secs());
}

§OS-specific behaviors

An Instant is a wrapper around system-specific types and it may behave differently depending on the underlying operating system. For example, the following snippet is fine on Linux but panics on macOS:

use std::time::{Instant, Duration};

let now = Instant::now();
let max_seconds = u64::MAX / 1_000_000_000;
let duration = Duration::new(max_seconds, 0);
println!("{:?}", now + duration);

§Underlying System calls

The following system calls are currently being used by now() to find out the current time:

Disclaimer: These system calls might change over time.

Note: mathematical operations like add may panic if the underlying structure cannot represent the new point in time.

§Monotonicity

On all platforms Instant will try to use an OS API that guarantees monotonic behavior if available, which is the case for all tier 1 platforms. In practice such guarantees are – under rare circumstances – broken by hardware, virtualization or operating system bugs. To work around these bugs and platforms not offering monotonic clocks duration_since, elapsed and sub saturate to zero. In older Rust versions this lead to a panic instead. checked_duration_since can be used to detect and handle situations where monotonicity is violated, or Instants are subtracted in the wrong order.

This workaround obscures programming errors where earlier and later instants are accidentally swapped. For this reason future Rust versions may reintroduce panics.

Implementations§

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impl Instant

1.8.0 · source

pub fn now() -> Instant

Returns an instant corresponding to “now”.

§Examples
use std::time::Instant;

let now = Instant::now();
1.8.0 · source

pub fn duration_since(&self, earlier: Instant) -> Duration

Returns the amount of time elapsed from another instant to this one, or zero duration if that instant is later than this one.

§Panics

Previous Rust versions panicked when earlier was later than self. Currently this method saturates. Future versions may reintroduce the panic in some circumstances. See Monotonicity.

§Examples
use std::time::{Duration, Instant};
use std::thread::sleep;

let now = Instant::now();
sleep(Duration::new(1, 0));
let new_now = Instant::now();
println!("{:?}", new_now.duration_since(now));
println!("{:?}", now.duration_since(new_now)); // 0ns
1.39.0 · source

pub fn checked_duration_since(&self, earlier: Instant) -> Option<Duration>

Returns the amount of time elapsed from another instant to this one, or None if that instant is later than this one.

Due to monotonicity bugs, even under correct logical ordering of the passed Instants, this method can return None.

§Examples
use std::time::{Duration, Instant};
use std::thread::sleep;

let now = Instant::now();
sleep(Duration::new(1, 0));
let new_now = Instant::now();
println!("{:?}", new_now.checked_duration_since(now));
println!("{:?}", now.checked_duration_since(new_now)); // None
1.39.0 · source

pub fn saturating_duration_since(&self, earlier: Instant) -> Duration

Returns the amount of time elapsed from another instant to this one, or zero duration if that instant is later than this one.

§Examples
use std::time::{Duration, Instant};
use std::thread::sleep;

let now = Instant::now();
sleep(Duration::new(1, 0));
let new_now = Instant::now();
println!("{:?}", new_now.saturating_duration_since(now));
println!("{:?}", now.saturating_duration_since(new_now)); // 0ns
1.8.0 · source

pub fn elapsed(&self) -> Duration

Returns the amount of time elapsed since this instant.

§Panics

Previous Rust versions panicked when the current time was earlier than self. Currently this method returns a Duration of zero in that case. Future versions may reintroduce the panic. See Monotonicity.

§Examples
use std::thread::sleep;
use std::time::{Duration, Instant};

let instant = Instant::now();
let three_secs = Duration::from_secs(3);
sleep(three_secs);
assert!(instant.elapsed() >= three_secs);
1.34.0 · source

pub fn checked_add(&self, duration: Duration) -> Option<Instant>

Returns Some(t) where t is the time self + duration if t can be represented as Instant (which means it’s inside the bounds of the underlying data structure), None otherwise.

1.34.0 · source

pub fn checked_sub(&self, duration: Duration) -> Option<Instant>

Returns Some(t) where t is the time self - duration if t can be represented as Instant (which means it’s inside the bounds of the underlying data structure), None otherwise.

Trait Implementations§

1.8.0 · source§

impl Add<Duration> for Instant

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fn add(self, other: Duration) -> Instant

§Panics

This function may panic if the resulting point in time cannot be represented by the underlying data structure. See Instant::checked_add for a version without panic.

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type Output = Instant

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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impl Add<Duration> for Instant

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type Output = Instant

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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fn add(self, duration: Duration) -> <Instant as Add<Duration>>::Output

Performs the + operation. Read more
1.9.0 · source§

impl AddAssign<Duration> for Instant

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fn add_assign(&mut self, other: Duration)

Performs the += operation. Read more
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impl AddAssign<Duration> for Instant

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fn add_assign(&mut self, rhs: Duration)

Performs the += operation. Read more
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impl AsRef<Instant> for Instant

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fn as_ref(&self) -> &Instant

Converts this type into a shared reference of the (usually inferred) input type.
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impl Borrow<Instant> for Instant

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fn borrow(&self) -> &Instant

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Clone for Instant

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fn clone(&self) -> Instant

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Debug for Instant

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl From<Instant> for Instant

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fn from(time: Instant) -> Instant

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<Instant> for Instant

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fn from(time: Instant) -> Instant

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<Instant> for Instant

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fn from(instant: Instant) -> Instant

Converts to this type from the input type.
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impl From<Instant> for Instant

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fn from(instant: Instant) -> Instant

Converts to this type from the input type.
1.8.0 · source§

impl Hash for Instant

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fn hash<__H>(&self, state: &mut __H)
where __H: Hasher,

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
1.3.0 · source§

fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H)
where H: Hasher, Self: Sized,

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
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impl InstantExt for Instant

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fn checked_add_signed(&self, duration: Duration) -> Option<Instant>

Returns Some(t) where t is the time self.checked_add_signed(duration) if t can be represented as Instant (which means it’s inside the bounds of the underlying data structure), None otherwise.
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fn checked_sub_signed(&self, duration: Duration) -> Option<Instant>

Returns Some(t) where t is the time self.checked_sub_signed(duration) if t can be represented as Instant (which means it’s inside the bounds of the underlying data structure), None otherwise.
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fn signed_duration_since(&self, earlier: Instant) -> Duration

Returns the amount of time elapsed from another instant to this one. This will be negative if earlier is later than self. Read more
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fn add_signed(self, duration: Duration) -> Self

Panics Read more
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fn sub_signed(self, duration: Duration) -> Self

Panics Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Ord for Instant

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fn cmp(&self, other: &Instant) -> Ordering

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more
1.21.0 · source§

fn max(self, other: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
1.21.0 · source§

fn min(self, other: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
1.50.0 · source§

fn clamp(self, min: Self, max: Self) -> Self
where Self: Sized + PartialOrd,

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
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impl PartialEq<Instant> for Instant

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fn eq(&self, rhs: &Instant) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
1.0.0 · source§

fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialEq<Instant> for Instant

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fn eq(&self, rhs: &Instant) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
1.0.0 · source§

fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
1.8.0 · source§

impl PartialEq for Instant

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fn eq(&self, other: &Instant) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
1.0.0 · source§

fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl PartialOrd<Instant> for Instant

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fn partial_cmp(&self, rhs: &Instant) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
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impl PartialOrd<Instant> for Instant

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fn partial_cmp(&self, rhs: &Instant) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl PartialOrd for Instant

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fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &Instant) -> Option<Ordering>

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Sub<Duration> for Instant

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type Output = Instant

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Duration) -> Instant

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl Sub<Duration> for Instant

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type Output = Instant

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, duration: Duration) -> <Instant as Sub<Duration>>::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl Sub<Instant> for Instant

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type Output = Duration

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Instant) -> <Instant as Sub<Instant>>::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl Sub<Instant> for Instant

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type Output = Duration

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, other: Instant) -> <Instant as Sub<Instant>>::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Sub for Instant

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fn sub(self, other: Instant) -> Duration

Returns the amount of time elapsed from another instant to this one, or zero duration if that instant is later than this one.

§Panics

Previous Rust versions panicked when other was later than self. Currently this method saturates. Future versions may reintroduce the panic in some circumstances. See Monotonicity.

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type Output = Duration

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
1.9.0 · source§

impl SubAssign<Duration> for Instant

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fn sub_assign(&mut self, other: Duration)

Performs the -= operation. Read more
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impl SubAssign<Duration> for Instant

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fn sub_assign(&mut self, rhs: Duration)

Performs the -= operation. Read more
1.8.0 · source§

impl Copy for Instant

1.8.0 · source§

impl Eq for Instant

1.8.0 · source§

impl StructuralPartialEq for Instant

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fn compare(&self, key: &K) -> Ordering

Compare self to key and return their ordering.
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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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Calls U::from(self).

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const ALIGN: usize = _

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type Init = T

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unsafe fn init(init: <T as Pointable>::Init) -> usize

Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more
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